The Early Pioneers of Virginia & West Virginia

A Retrospective Series on Ancestral Relations

Subject 1 – Col. Morgan Morgan (1688-1766)

In many of my writings, I’ve always maintained the view that our ancestors, famous or not, all played an important part of our country’s history.  Many times, we may see a possible connection to the notable pioneers of our country.  In this series, I wanted to concentrate on the actual evidence of our connection to the early pioneers of Virginia and West Virginia that played a role in opening up the doors into the wilderness that became early settlements of Virginia and Western Virginia. These locations became beacons of opportunity where other early settlers followed their predecessors and built strong communities.  Most of the pioneer subjects in this series are ones that have an authenticated and documented relationship to myself or my wife, while one or two others either has no actual proof by means of records such as birth, marriage or death records to make the ancestral connection or there is a mistaken connection that has been propagated through the years either by family lore or by verbal tradition.

Our first subject of interest is widely considered the first European settler of what is now West Virginia, Col. Morgan Morgan.  This is what has been traditionally and historically recorded by historians and some genealogists, but in actuality it is doubtful, since there were already early German settlers in what is now Shephardstown, WV and surrounding area as early as 1727.  Based on part of that “tradition” relating to ancestral family, Col. Morgan would be a distant cousin of mine, since I have documented my connection to the ancestral Morgan family of Tredegar, Wales.  What follows draws into question Col. Morgan’s relationship to that very Morgan family.

Image courtesy of

It is not my intention to take away from the many accomplishments of Col. Morgan and his family.  I merely want to make it clear that there are doubts and concerns regarding Col. Morgan’s relationship to the well known ancestral Morgans of Tredegar, Wales.  The following was taken from the “Back Rhodes of Our Genealogy” website.

“Morgan Morgan was born in the principality of Wales on November 1st, 1688, traditionally said in the county of Glamorganshire, though that is in question. As there are no primary sources linking him to such a birthplace, the idea that he was born in Glamorgan seems to arise from the family legend that he was a member of the Morgans of St. Mellon’s, a junior branch of the famous and ancient Morgan family of Tredegar. This theorized relationship is perhaps the most substantial of the Morgan legends to genealogists, as if true, would give insight into Morgan’s family origins. Unfortunately, however, no evidence has ever been found to support this proposal, or tie Morgan into any other Welsh lineages.

Most commonly though, Morgan is claimed to have been a son of Charles Morgan of St. Mellon’s, an alleged grandson of Sir William Morgan of Tredegar, through William’s son, John of the Temple. However, from where this idea originated has never been clear, but it does appear to be a relatively new phenomenon as none of the older Morgan genealogy references have ever addressed it.

In George T. Clark’s elemental work, Genealogies of the Older Families of the Lordships of Morgan and Glamorgan, John of the Temple is shown as Sir William’s son, through William’s first wife, Lady Elizabeth (Winter) Clark. Unfortunately it does not further explore John’s family, however, and thus has made no record of his children or grandchildren. Although Clark’s genealogies do include some information on the Morgan’s of St. Mellon’s, there is absolutely no entry of this particular Charles, and it should also be noted, that no other records regarding this individual have ever been produced or cited by researchers. In other words, as it stands, even Charles’ existence remains to be inconclusive.

Perhaps the most persuasive detail in contest to this relationship is in the way Morgan’s name is commonly presented. As the Report of the Col. Morgan Morgan Monument Commission reads:

”Lest the Welsh preposition ap…be construed by the reader to be a part of the name, it may be stated that “Morgan ap Morgan” means Morgan son of Morgan, and was used to designate the son before the adoption in Wales of Christian names.”

Up until the beginning of the eighteenth century, few Welsh families possessed fixed surnames, using a patronymic system of which individuals were identified in relationship to their father. For example, a Rhys, son of a William, would be know n as “Rhys Williams,” or “Rhys ap William,” with ap meaning literally, “son of.” If, for instance, Rhys further had a son named Maredudd, then Maredudd may consequently take on the name “Maredudd Rhys,” or “Maredudd ap Rhys,” thus showing that the surnames of many Welsh families were adjusted within every generation. This also further discredits the idea that all “Morgans” share a common ancestor, as family names were simply nonexistent among many ancestral lines until circa three hundred years ago. However, subsequently, as Morgan’s name is often accepted as “Morgan ap Morgan,” one would expect his father’s forename to have also been Morgan, rather than Charles.

Furthermore, although many genealogical lines spawning from the progenitor of the Tredegar Morgans continued the use of this naming system, it can be seen in Clark’s genealogies that the forefathers of the aforementioned Sir William adopted their fixed Morgan surname in the fourteenth century, making them one of the earliest Welsh families to make the conformation. Therefore, if Morgan was indeed a descendant of this Morgan line, it seems unlikely that he would have returned to the traditional patronymic system after nearly four centuries. If Morgan was indeed once known as “Morgan ap Morgan,” then it is probable that his ancestry had not yet acquired a fixed surname, and that he simply adopted it himself after immigrating to America in order to conform with English customs.

This relationship to Charles is not the only element of this family legend to be addressed, however. Another important and routinely declared tradition of Morgan’s descendants, is that Sir Henry Morgan, famously known at “the buccaneer,” or “the pirate,” was a brother of Charles,’ and thus an uncle of Morgan’s. This is so widely believed, that even at the 100th Morgan Morgan Family Reunion, an entire exhibit was dedicated to the notorious man. However, this claim cannot be proven, as simply, there are no primary sources naming the parentage of Sir Henry. Just as Sylvanus Urban published in The Gentleman’s Magazine and Historical Chronicle in 1832 – a statement that references the still defining factor of Henry and Morgan’ s claimed blood relationship:

”Of the parentage of Sir Henry I have not yet been able to obtain any positive proof; but it is sufficiently evident, from numerous collateral facts, that he was one of the great clan of the Morgans of Monmouthsire, which the house of Tredegar was at hand.”

The most persuasive of these “facts” that Urban refers to, is that in the will of Sir Henry, a Thomas Morgan of Tredegar was styled as his cousin. While this makes it unquestionable that Henry was in relation to the powerful Tredegar family, the exact origin has never been proven.

Nevertheless, this Thomas is understood to have been the great-great grandson of Thomas Morgan of Machen and Tredegar, who was married to Elizabeth, daughter of Roger Bodenham. After an examination of Clark’s genealogies, the brother of Thomas Morgan of Machen and Tredegar, Henry of Llanrhymny, was the grandfather of Robert and Lt. Gen. Edward Morgan, sons of Thomas and Catherine (Herbert) Morgan of Llanrhymny. As Clark recorded among his works, he believed that this Robert was the fat her, rather than John of the Temple, of Sir Henry; an idea that many modern historians also believe. Further, Lt. Gen. Edward Morgan, and his wife, Anna Petronella (Von Polnitz), were the parents of Mary Elizabeth Morgan, who subsequently, married Sir Henry. Needless to say, if Henry was of the Llanrhymny family, a first cousin to his wife, and indeed a son of Robert’s, then he could not have been a brother of the said Charles, and he especially could not have been an uncle of Morgan’s .

Theoretically, the relationship between these three men was likely first based in circumstantial evidence. Humorously, it has been joked that every “Grandfather Morgan” has proudly boasted such tall tales to his grandchildren of a blood relationship to the infamous “Terror of the Spanish Main.” It is probable that someone’s guesswork, noticing the obvious that both Morgan and Henry had the same surname, led to the speculation, and later gave rise to the legend that the two men were related.

What is especially noticeable to the researchers of Morgan’s life and family, is that two of his sons, Charles and Henry, are also generally paired with one another as they are the two male progenitors of what is commonly called “the three lost Morgan tribes.” Charles and Henry were born consecutively, their wives were sisters, and additionally, the families of both are generally associated with Spartanburg, South Carolina. Also, frustratingly, with the exception of a few tidbits of information, the two brothers essentially disappeared from the historical record, and their descendants are hence “lost.” Therefore, typically, as there is so little known about these two brothers, they are generally addressed together, rather than as separate individuals.

As Sir Henry had no children of his own, he therefore could not have had any direct descendants, and obviously, could not have been Morgan’s father. However, it is probable that this simply guided the idea that he could have instead been an uncle. With the father-son relationship between Henry and Morgan out of the question, it is no surprise that the next choice, and obvious best fit to the theory, was that Morgan’s father was a Charles, thus playing on this Charles-Henry correlation . This appears to be the root of the family legend, which in addition, after becoming accepted as fact by many unsuspecting Morgan descendants, pushed into further assumptions. Eventually, a collection of speculations, intricately “fit” into one another, basing guesswork off of other guesswork, led to one large collection of “facts,” and ultimately, a single conglomerate legend regarding Morgan’s family. Unfortunately, as intricate as this family legend is, it has no real basis in historical evidence, whatsoever.

Morgan is also commonly believed to have had three distinguished brothers: Zackquill, Evan, and Charles. Noticeably, these three names are all those of Morgan’s sons, which may initially call for a researcher’s attention. In particular, the name Zackquill is highly indicative, as that name appears to have been wholly unique to Morgan’s descendants. If a Zackquill Morgan were to be found among Welsh records, then it would emphatically give a strong indication of kinship. However, the problem exists in that there never has been any Zackquill, Morgan or otherwise, cited within Welsh records. Especially since this Zackquill Morgan is generally claimed to have once been a Bishop of Cardiff, one would expect to find some records of this noteworthy person – but there are none. No official records of this mentioned Evan (a supposed military officer), or Charles (a supposed prominent farmer), have ever been presented either, and just as with Morgan’s supposed father, there is no evidence to prove that these three “brothers” are anything more than fictitious characters.

Overall, as it was correctly and appropriately recorded in the report published by the Col. Morgan Morgan Monument Commission:

”Whether by design or through indifference to ancestral lore – the latter being a well known family trait – Col. Morgan Morgan left no record, official or otherwise, so far as is known, which has been preserved or remembered by any of his many descendants, of his connection in his native Wales with the old Glamorganshire family there of the same name.”

To date, this work remains to be the most comprehensive account of Morgan’s life. The above statement, written over eighty years ago, is still the conclusive reality of any ties speculated between Morgan and the family of Tredegar.

With Morgan’s parentage still unknown, his early years have been further shrouded in history as there are no historical records pertaining to him during that time. The little insight we have comes from a record found within a family Bible, written by Charles Stephen Morgan, Morgan’s great-grandson (Stephen3, David2, Morgan1), in 1835. Now located in the Virginia State Library’s archives and manuscript collection, it reads that Morgan was “educated in London during the reign of William III” (1689 – 1702), however, although he, along with his children and grandchildren, are found to have been able to read and write quite eminently, the extensiveness of his learning’s are unknown. It is often said that Morgan studied at Cambridge University, but as he is not listed among John Venn’s Alumni Cantabrigienses, this probably isn’t true. Further, as Morgan was born in Wales, it has become unclear whether his family had removed to London, or if he was simply sent there to board during his schooling years. However, as education has been historically withheld from the lower classes of social hierarchies, it has been construed that Morgan was at least of a family with some social standing, and his education would no doubt play a chief role in his success and prominence in America.”

The above notation is courtesy of Carl Rhodes – Back Rhodes of Our Genealogy.

Other seeds of doubt:


There is one tantalizing record I found on Ancestry© that closely matches our subject:

So, does this prove anything?  Not really.  The surname Morgan is probably one of the most common surnames in Wales.  According to and, the surname Morgan is in the top 10 most common surnames in Wales, and 55% of the population of Wales has one of these top 10 surnames, Jones being #1.  So that means there are many, many Morgans, but that does not mean that they are all related to each other.

The given name Morgan is also a common occurrence, as there were many Morgan Morgan baptism records across Wales during the time period that Col. Morgan Morgan was born.

It is quite clear that Col. Morgan Morgan and his descendants would have issues in making the case for connections to the well-known ancestral Morgan family of Tredegar.  Since I began genealogy research, I have learned that what may appear to be true, isn’t necessarily true until proven otherwise.  Whether it is written in a book or claimed by noted researchers, don’t take everything at face value, do the research yourself.  You have to find the recorded evidence to be able “stake a claim” into any ancestral family.

Cited Works and References:

American Guide Series. Story of Old Allegheny City. Pittsburgh: Allegheny Centennial Committee. 1941.

Armor, William Crawford. Lives of the Governors of Pennsylvania: With the Incidental History of the State from 1609 to 1873. Davis. 1874.

Baldwin, Stewart. “The Family of Edward Morgan of Pennsylvania.” The Genealogist. Ed. Charles M. Hansen and Gale Ion Harris. Vol. 15, no. 1. Picton Press. 2001.

Carnes, Eva Margaret. “The Courthouse Wars, pt. 1.” West Virginia Division of Culture and History. 2007. 22 Sept. 2007. <;

Clark, George T. Genealogies of the Older Families of the Lordships of Morgan and Glamorgan. London: Wyman & Sons. 1886.

Col. Morgan Morgan Monument Commission. Report of the Col. Morgan Morgan Monument Commission. Charleston: Jarrett Printing Co. 1924.

Craig, Peter Stebbins. 1671 Census of the Delaware. Philadelphia: Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania. 1999.

Daily, William Allen. “History of the Descendants of David Morgan.” (1909). The Morgan Society. 2000. 05 Oct. 2007. <;

Dilger, Robert Jay. “Early History of Marion County.” West Virginia University. 04 Nov. 2007.

Dilger, Robert Jay. “Fayette County History.” West Virginia University. 04 Nov. 2007.

Dunaway, Wayland F. A History of Pennsylvania. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1948.

Ellis, Franklin. History of Fayette County, Pennsylvania: With Biographical Sketches of Many of its Pioneers and Prominent Men. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International. 1979.

Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington. New York: Vintage Books. 2004.

Everson, Dan. “Timeline: 1745-1768.” National Conservation Training Center: NCTC Cultural History. 20 Sept. 2007.

Finley, James B. Life Among the Indians: Or, Personal Reminiscences and Historical Incidents Illustrative of Indian Life and Character. New York: Eaton & Mains.

“Frederick County Virginia Records.” New Papyrus Publishing Company. 2007. 25 Nov 2007. <;

Hofstra, Warren R. “The Extension of His Majesties Dominions: The Virginia Backcountry and the Reconfiguration of Imperial Frontiers.” The Journal of American History. Vol. 84, No. 4. (Mar. 1998), pp. 1281-1312. JSTOR. Carnegie Lib., Pittsburgh, PA. 14 Sept. 2007.

Holy Trinity Church. The Records of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church, Wilmington Del., from 1697 to 1773. Wilmington: Historical Society of Delaware. 1890.

Kingston, Priscilla. Morgan the Family. Capitol Heights, MD: American Genealogical Research Institute. 1975.

Lewis, Linda Cassidy. “Interview with David and Elizabeth Cassity Crouch.” Cassity/Cassidy Family Association. 2005. 01 Oct. 2007. <;

Lough, Glenn D. Now and Long Ago: A History of the Marion County Area. Fairmont, West Virginia: Marion County Historical Society. 1969.

Lowe, Joanne, and Robert Ellis. 100th Col. Morgan Morgan Family Reunion Bus Tour Narration CD. Aug. 2007.

McKay, Aprille Cooke. “Early Presbyterian Congregations.” Ed. Malcolm Humes. 2005. University of Michigan. 24 Nov. 2007.

McWhorter, Lucullus Virgil. The Border Settlers of Northwestern Virginia from 1768 to 1795: Embracing the Life of Jesse Hughes and Other Noted Scouts of the Great Woods of the Trans-Allegheny. Dayton, VA: Ruebush-Elkins Co. 1915.

Meginness, John Franklin. Otzinachson: Or, A History of the West Branch Valley of the Susquehanna. Williamsport, PA: Gazette and Bulletin Printing House. 1889.

Moore, Jack B. “The Earliest Printed Version of David Morgan and the Two Indians.” West Virginia Division of Culture and History. 2007. 01 Oct. 2007. <;

Morgan, Charles Stephen. “Morgan Bible Record.” 1835.

Payne, Dale. Biographical Sketches of The Pioneers: Their Lives and Adventures. Kansas City: Dale Payne. 2006.

Smyth, Samuel Gordon. A Genealogy of the Duke-Shepherd-Van Metre Family: From Civil, Military, Church and Family Records and Documents. Google Books. Google. 2007. 22 Nov. 2007. < etre+family&ei=q2ZKR8DcIpak7wKSyqCIBw#PPP1,M1>

Scott, W.W. A History of Orange County Virginia. New River Notes: Historical and Genealogical Resources for the Upper New River Valley of North Carolina and Virginia. New River Notes. 2006. 22 Nov. 2007. <;

Urban, Sylvanus. The Gentleman’s Magazine and Historical Chronicle. Vol. CII. London: J.B. Nichols and Son. 1832.

Veech, James. The Monongahela of Old: Historical Sketches of Southwestern Pennsylvania to the year 1800. Pittsburgh: 1892.

Venn, John. Alumni Cantabrigienses: A Biographical List of All Known Students, Graduates and Holders of Office at the University of Cambridge, from the Earliest Times to 1900. Cambridge: University Press. 1924.

Walkinshaw, Lewis Clark. Annals of Southwestern Pennsylvania. Vol. IV. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, Inc. 1939.

“White Clay Creek Hundred Multiple Resource Area.” National Register of Historic Places. 1983.

Withers, Alexander Scott. Chronicles of Border Warfare: Or, A History of the Settlement by the Whites, of Northwestern Virginia, and the Indian Wars and Massacres in that Section of the State. Cincinnati: Stewart & Kidd Company. 1920.

Featured Image:

Morgantown, WV 1897 – Morgantown was settled in 1772 by Zackquill Morgan, a son of Morgan Morgan. The Virginia Assembly chartered the territory in 1785 and the first lot sale was held. Morgan received the charter for the establishment of the town to be called Morgan’s Town on October 17, 1785. ~ Courtesy of the Library of Congress

Special Thanks to:

Carl Rhodes

West Virginia Department of Arts, Culture and History

My wife Cheryl, who continues to love me and support my research, which I could never do without

8 thoughts on “The Early Pioneers of Virginia & West Virginia

  1. Love this article. My Dragoo family members served with Zoequel Morgan at Prickett’s Fort. All those families were connected like an orb web, either family or neighbors. Morgan and Dragoo families married so connections there. I have done trees of many families to find answers to brick walls with Dragoos. Found many and willing to share.


    • Carol, I love being able to write about those ancestors that have made an impact on our history! Your Dragoos sound like an interesting clan. I would love to hear some back story on them! Thank you. Brian S. Miller


  2. Brian, I think we all have ancestors who are said to have been related to this or that famous person or line and if we look close enough the evidence is lacking.
    My father’s kin claims the boxer Jack Dempsey to be a cousin. To this day, I have not been able to link his line to either of our Dempsey lines. I’m not even seeing DNA matches for people with THAT Dempsey line in their family tree. So frustrating!
    I’m looking forward to who the next subjects will be.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Cathy, I completely understand that frustration, having myself done research on some Dempsey families including yours. My wife became friends with a Dempsey in high school after my wife had moved to NW Ohio. It turns out that her Dempsey friend’s family not only hails from that part of WV, but is related to the boxer Jack Dempsey…but the biggest surprise of all I discovered is my wife’s Dempsey friend is her 8th cousin. Go figure! All the upcoming subjects are very interesting and notable figures in VA and WV history. Thank you as always, Brian

      Liked by 1 person

      • The Dempsey lines in West Virginia are not that hard to research – it’s finding their connections, if they have any, that are.
        I think anyone with WV families will at some point find a distant cousin connection. Those early families were large and many families had two or more children marrying into the same family.

        Liked by 1 person

  3. Cathy, One of my best finds for my wife’s Dempsey friend I actually found on the Library of Virginia Chancery records. I found a case against a Dempsey family that clearly stated the Dempsey patriarch, his wife, brothers and sisters and all of his children. It was one of those moments in genealogy research that we all enjoy because it clearly solidified the research I did. You taught me those valuable lessons. Thank you, Brian


    • Hi Amber,
      Thanks so much! This is a series I’ve been wanting to do for a while now. The cast of characters are diverse and all have a great story behind them. Let’s see…hints without giving away too much?

      Let’s use surnames and maybe you can figure out who I’ll be writing about…

      Miller, Mueller, Morris, Young, Rolfe…does that help?
      Thanks again!


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